Who are The 3 Credit Bureaus and What Do They Do

Who are The 3 Credit Bureaus and What Do They Do

Credit bureaus play a crucial role in determining credit scores. In the US, Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion are the three main credit reporting agencies.

These companies use collected consumer credit data to generate credit reports, which are used as the foundation for credit scores.

Knowing how credit bureaus work and the data they collect is critical for anyone who wants to improve or maintain their credit score.

In this article, we’ll explore how credit bureaus influence our financial lives in greater depth.

Who are the 3 credit bureaus?

Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion are the three main consumer credit bureaus in the US.

Referred to as credit reporting agencies or consumer reporting companies, these organizations collect and update information regarding consumers’ credit histories.

It is likely that if you have a loan or credit card, you will have a credit file registered with one, two, or all three of the major credit bureaus. These credit bureaus collect and sell information on consumers’ credit behavior without their consent.

Businesses that review credit, such as credit card companies and lenders, must have a justifiable reason and gain authorization from the consumer beforehand.

It’s important to remember that there are also specialized reporting agencies that gather data about you, like rental payments, insurance claims and medical payment history.

What do credit bureaus do?

Credit bureaus compile and store information about an individual’s credit history, which is used to generate credit reports and scores.

Credit bureaus typically keep track of details like hard inquiries pertaining to credit applications, the date when accounts are opened, loan amounts/credit limits, account balances, payment histories, whether accounts are in collection and public records.

This data is used to estimate the probability of a consumer repaying debts in a timely manner.

Credit reports are used by lenders, insurers, landlords and other organisations in order to make decisions such as granting credit, setting interest rates, setting insurance premiums and approving rental applications.

Who are The 3 Credit Bureaus and What Do They Do

How credit reports are used

Businesses use credit reports to make decisions about lending and other matters.

When looking to approve a consumer for a loan, lenders will access their credit reports as part of the evaluation, determine what interest rate should be offered, and decide an appropriate credit limit.

Insurance providers may consider credit reports when evaluating applications or determining rates.

Landlords may use credit reports to evaluate a tenant’s eligibility for an apartment lease.

As part of their background check process, some companies may look at an applicant’s credit report.

Keep in mind that your credit report can affect other parts of your life, such as applying for utilities and rental deposits.

Because of this, it’s important to regularly check your credit reports and dispute any inaccuracies or errors.

Where do credit bureaus get their data?

Credit bureaus acquire their data from creditors including banks, credit unions, credit card companies, auto loan providers, mortgage lenders and debt collection services.

The credit bureaus use information that is voluntarily provided by creditors to make lending decisions.

Credit bureaus not only collect details from creditors, but also look at public records to improve their reports.

These records may include things such as property records, liens, bankruptcies, and foreclosures. This data is used to estimate the probability of a customer paying back debts promptly.

Taking into consideration the limitations imposed by the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA), credit bureaus are highly regulated when it comes to collecting and sharing personal data.

The Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) is a federal regulation that oversees the credit report industry and guarantees consumers the right to inspect and dispute their credit reports. This means that consumers have the right to see their credit reports and to dispute any inaccuracies or errors.

Protecting your credit

Checking your credit reports for mistakes or inaccuracies on a regular basis is essential, as these can have a negative effect on your credit scores.

If you find any errors, you have the right to dispute them with the credit bureaus. This is the procedure for challenging incorrect information on your credit reports:

  1. You should collect documents like invoices or receipts that reinforce your dispute.
  2. To correct false information, get in touch with the credit bureau(s) listed. This can be done through mail, phone calls, or the internet. However, we strongly suggest using certified mail for better organization.
  3. Supply the credit bureau with your data like your name and Social Security number, then clarify any false information on your credit report. Don’t forget to send any related documents.
  4. The credit bureau will investigate your dispute and typically provide a response within 30 days.
  5. If the credit bureau finds that the information is inaccurate, they will correct it and notify you of the changes. If the credit bureau confirms that the information is valid, they will inform you accordingly.
  6. If you disagree with the credit bureau’s findings, you can file a statement of dispute, which will be included in your credit report.
  7. Also, people have the right to put a security freeze on their credit report. A security freeze makes it impossible for creditors and employers to access your credit report, providing a safeguard against identity theft.

When disputing errors on your credit report, it may be time-consuming and require effort, but it is vital to do so to make sure that your credit score is correct and that you are guarded against identity theft.

How to Get Your Credit Report

Legally, you are entitled to a complimentary copy of your credit report annually. You can get free credit reports from the big three credit reporting agencies. Go to AnnualCreditReport.com to find out how.

You may be restricted on how many times you can access your report. For additional information, visit the website or call 877-322-8228.


To summarize, the three main credit bureaus in the United States are Equifax, Experian and TransUnion.

Credit bureaus collect and keep data related to your credit history and finances, which they use to generate credit documents that form the foundation of your credit ratings.

Credit reports serve as a tool for lenders and other organizations to make decisions on granting credit, setting interest rates, and more.

Consumers should frequently review their credit reports to identify and fix mistakes, as this can significantly influence their credit scores.

Consumers can also add a security freeze on their credit reports to protect against identity theft.

Knowing how credit bureaus operate and monitoring your credit score will help you manage your credit and financial wellbeing.